How to use the programme

 

In [Guide]Introduction it is explained how you make GroenOrd available on your computer. As said, the running programme has a topmost bar with a number of push-buttons on the screen: [input] [full articles +] [++] [+-] [Bdg '] [analysis -] [found] [--] [right part /]. Last come: [Guide] [Grammar] [vejledning] [grammatik] and Window.

 

The main window contains an upper left window with results and a lower right window with guide or dictionary. If you place the cursor on the uppermost blue bar of a window and press the left mouse button down, the window will follow the cursor.

 

Here follows an explanation to the first nine push-buttons, ending with [right part /].

 

 

[input]

 

The first push-button above is [input]; if you push it, a small dialog box will pop up. Here you may write the Greenlandic (or Danish) word that is to be looked up. You may also mark a word in a window and push [input]. Or you may point at the word and double click the left mouse button (or tap the mouse pad on a laptop PC). It is possible to write in the window 'resultater / results'.

 

Now give the word "qajaavoq" (without quotation marks). In the result window the programme responds:

 

  Kr: (r25,21)  _qajaavoq, omkommer i kajak.

  OseP: (i84;88 1)  [qajaa 2 10.] {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau-} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak *

  OseP(2): (i84;88 2)  [qajaa 2 10.] * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, qajaangajappoq

 

The programme has found the given word with the English translation '(he) has perished in a kayak' in the lexicon OseP (i84;88 1 and 2), see [Guide]Introduction.

 

"i84;88 1" indicates the first segment of article no. 88 in the dictionary file i84. A double click on the article number ("88") after "i84;" will give the full article:

 

  OseP: (i84,88)  [qajaa 2 10.] {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau-} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

 

A double click on "88" after "i84," (with a comma) will show that region of the dictionary file i84 in a new window down right. The lines are not broken if you add a "-" in front (i.e. "-i84,88") before double clicking on "88".

 

 

[full articles +] [+-] [++] [Bdg ']

 

 

The programme remembers the latest given word. It will show (nearly) full articles if you enter the word through the push-button [full articles +]:

 

  Kr: (r25,21)  _qajaavoq, omkommer i kajak.

  OseP: (i84,88)  [qajaa 2 10.] {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau-} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

 

If you give a word through the push-button [++], some references to other articles or dictionaries may also be shown. Here are none, but see under [analysis -] below.

 

If you give a word through the push-button [+-], the programme will show the articles just as they are in the lexica:

 

 looked in (double click/tap) : K171 O217 s142 e99 P40 B77 d67 g294

  (r25,21)  * _qajaavoq, omkommer i kajak.

  (i84,88)  "qajaa 2 10.*{qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau-} +voq . er omkommet i kajak \ has perished in a kayak * >qajauvoq: =qáinákut =ajunârpoq; _qajau%ssoqarajoqaoq, _qajau%ngajagpoq.

 

In the dictionary P (after an "*" last in the articles from OseP) you can now see what the words look like in the old orthography. The programme otherwise transforms P to new orthography before it is shown on the screen.

 

A double click on "K171", "O217" or "B77" will show the (approximate) place in a lexicon where the programme stopped its search for the given word. The lexicon will be shown in a new window down right, where you may continue the search manually.

 

The square bracket in the beginning of the article for "qajaavoq" in OseP contains the stem form in the dictionary. qajaa2 is an intransitive (10.) verbal stem (2). The following curly bracket tells us that this stem probably is a derivation of the stem in the word "qajaq". "PI 319:8 qayau-" is information from CED = Comparative Eskimo Dictionary. "qayau-" is the proposed Inuit proto-form; it occurs as no. 8 on page 319 in the second edition (2010) of CED.

 

You may give terms like "PI" in and obtain a short explanation. A full list is found in [Guide]Abbreviations in CED.

 

If you give a word through the push-button [Bdg '], the first up to 150 occurencies of the word anywhere in the Danish-Greenlandic dictionary (Bdg) will be shown.

 

 

[analysis -] [found]

 

If you give a word through [analysis -], the programme will attempt an analysis. Try "qajaavoq" again:

 

qajaavoq, qa=jaa=voq (2 4 3)

  OseP: (i84;88 1)  [qajaa 2 10.] {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau- +} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak *

  OseP(2): (i84;88 2)  [qajaa 2 10.] * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

 

  More (double click/tap) :  K r P g 0 5 12

 

Now the programme also shows how the given word is divided in (Greenlandic) syllables. The second syllable has the 'weight' 2+2=4 because the vowel is long (aa). The third syllable has the 'weight' 2+1=3 because it ends in a consonant (q). The word is pronounced with most stress on the heavier second syllable. When the syllables of a word have equal 'weight', there is most stress on the first, third and fifth etc. syllables from the end.

 

Last comes a line with letters and numbers. You may double click/tap or select through [found].

 

Selection of a letter will show what the programme has found in the dictionary in question. If you give the letter with a sign "-" (e.g. through [analysis -]), the articles are shown just as they are in the dictionary. The programme will show the first up to 150 occurencies of the given word under each letter; you may write another maximum number between 1 and 200 before the given word, e.g. "-10 kayak".

 

Selection of "P" gives:

 

P : tekstord i Ordbogeeraq E word in the text of (Ose)P  (dobbeltklik tal efter ';' viser hele artiklen E double click on number after ';' shows the full article)

  OseP: (i84;25 12)  [qa Naq4 qajaq] -#qaannakkut =pivoq: =qajaavoq

 

  More (double click/tap) :  K r O g 0 5 12

 

(Other uses of "P" will be shown if the latest analysis gave nothing under this letter.)

 

Selection of "0" (the digit) gives:

 

0 : enkleste analyse(r) E simplest analysis/analyses

   Analysis :  qajaa/voq/  =  qajaa2.Poq1.€0  (indi,3e)

  <qajaa2  verbalstamme E verbal stem>  OseP: (i84;88)  {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau-} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

  <.Poq1  indikativ (fremsættemåde) E indicative>

  <.€0  3. person ental E 3rd person singular>

 

  More (double click/tap) :  K r O P g 5 12

 

"qajaavoq" is probably the verbal stem qajaa2 with inflexion for indicative, 3rd person singular. "5" gives a more complex analysis:

 

5

   Analysis :  qaja/a/voq/  =  qajaq4.u2.Poq1.€0  (indi,3e) [-u-]

  <qajaq4  navnestamme E noun stem>  OseP: (i84;201)  {PE 319:5 qayaR} >qajaq . kajak S (med mand i) E kayak (with a man in it) | >qaannat . kajakker, kajakmænd | >qaannat =marluk =aggerput: S der kommer to kajakmænd roende E there are two kayak men who come paddling | -#qaannap -#qaannamut -#qaannanut | >qajara =iluarsarallarlara: S lad mig først ordne min kajak! E let me first arrange my kayak | -#qaannama -#qajaaqajarpoq | -§qajakasigaqajakua #qajapilorujussuaq | #qajarsiaq #qajarsiaa | -§qajarsissagaluarama #qajassaa * >qajaq, t aannqajartaarpoq, #qajarsiorpoq, &qajassiaq  | >qaannat, tq | -#qaannakkut =pivoq: =qajaavoq

  <.u2  føjes til navnestamme, danner verbalstamme E is added to a noun stem, forms a verbal stem>  'er (en/et) ..' .uvoq

  <.Poq1  indikativ (fremsættemåde) E indicative>

  <.€0  3. person ental E 3rd person singular>

 

  More (double click/tap) :  K r O P g 0 12

 

The stem qajaa2 'perish in a kayak' may be qajaq4 expanded with .u2 'be (a) ..'. Or "qajaavoq" may be "qajaq" with the affix ".uvoq", as it is usually put. You may enter them all by double clicking. "qajaavoq" doesn't mean 'he is a kayak', however; but the kayaker is one with his vessel, and even more so when he hangs dead in it. Later, only the kayak is found.

 

Double click on a word with a sign "€"/"#"/"-#"/"§"/"-§"/"&"/"%"/"-%" will show what another article or dictionary says about the word. Try it, and see an explanation in [Guide]The dictionaries. These words are not shown if you give the word through [full articles +], i.e. with just one "+".

 

With "12" you get a still more complex analysis.

 

You may also give e.g. "qajaangajappoq" in through [analysis -]:

 

qajaangajappoq, qa=jaa=nga=jap=poq (2 4 2 3 3)

  OseP: (i84;88 2)  [qajaa 2 10.] * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

 

  More (double click/tap) :  0 1 5 6 8 12

 

0 : enkleste analyse(r) E simplest analysis/analyses

   Analysis :  qajaa/ngajap/poq/  =  qajaa2.ngajak2.Poq1.€0  (indi,3e)

  <qajaa2  verbalstamme E verbal stem>  OseP: (i84;88)  {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau-} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

  <.ngajak2  udvider verbalstamme E expands a verbal stem>  '.. næsten/omtrent' .ngajappoq

  <.Poq1  indikativ (fremsættemåde) E indicative>

  <.€0  3. person ental E 3rd person singular>

 

  More (double click/tap) :  O 1 5 6 8 12

 

(The last line contains the letter "O", not the digit "0".) A double click on ".ngajappoq" will give:

 

  Kr: (r87;19 1)  §.ngajak, N. frit; og _.ngajappoq, V. ntr. frit: næsten; så halvt. |

  <føjes til verbalstamme E is added to a verbal stem>  OseP: (i149;129 1)  [.ngaja k2] (2) {[PE 474:5 .tyag]} >.ngajappoq A .. næsten/omtrent E .. almost |

 

"qajaangajappoq" probably means "he almost perished in a kayak".

 

 

[--]

 

If you give a word through this push-button, the programme will also take Danish word parts into consideration during analysis. See [Guide]Analysis with Danish.

 

If the programme (still) cannot recognize all parts of the given word, it will add a "0" before the numbers (for analyses) with a single digit: 00, 01 and so on. Numbers greater than 9 (i.e. 09) are not shown in this case.

 

With a number for already found analyses you obtain relation and Role diagrams for those analyses, see [Grammar]Diagrams.

 

 

[right part /]

 

The affix .uvoq occurs with the form "avoq" in "qajaavoq". If you cannot remember the standard form, give "avoq" through the pushbutton [right part /] and obtain some suggestions:

 

 looked in (double click/tap) : O7

  <føjes til verbalstamme E is added to a verbal stem>  OseP: (i139,130)  [/a i2 3:10..(T)i] (2) {-a/}  /avoq : .(T)ivoq '.. (nogen/noget)'

  <føjes til verbalstamme E is added to a verbal stem>  OseP(2): (i146,198)  [/a 2 10..ja] (2) {-i/}  /avoq : .javoq 'er tilbøjelig til at .., .. let'

  <føjes til ord eller navnestamme E is added to a word or a noun stem>  OseP(3): (i155,139)  [/a 2 10..u] (0/4) {-a/}  /avoq : .uvoq 'er (en/et) ..'

 

The third entry says that "avoq" after a (: {-a/}) may be .uvoq. The first suggests the "semi-transitive" (or Object-suppressing) affix .(T)ivoq instead. It is added to a transitive verbal stem. (The still more complex analysis obtained with "12" in fact involves .(T)ivoq.)

 

"10." means intransitive, i.e. without Object. "3:" indicates a 'weight' 3 instead of the default 2 per morpheme. Analyses with a smaller sum of these 'weights' are preferred.

 

You obtain explanation to most other terms and signs if you give them in through [input]. The class digits (0/2/4) must be given in parentheses: "(0)" etc. A list can be found in [Grammar]Class digits and inflexions.