How to use the programme

 

In [Guide]Introduction it is explained how you make GroenOrd available on your computer. The running programme has a topmost bar with a number of push-buttons on the screen: [input] [full articles ,+] [+] [+-] [Ose ;] [Bdg '] [analysis -] [-+] [--] [right part /] [reverse g_]. Last come: [Guide] [Grammar] [vejledning] [grammatik] and Window.

 

The main window contains an upper left window with results and a lower right window with guide or dictionary. If you place the cursor on the uppermost blue bar of a window and press the left mouse button down, the window will follow the cursor.

 

Here follows an explanation to the first 11 push-buttons, ending with [reverse g_]. I shall start with the first 6:

 

 

[input] [full articles ,+] [+] [+-] [Ose ;] [Bdg ']

 

The first push-button above is [input]; if you push it, a small dialog box will pop up. Here you may write the Greenlandic or Danish word that is to be looked up. You may also point at the word in a window and double click the left mouse button, or point at the word and tap the mouse pad on a laptop PC. It is possible to write in the window 'resultater / results'.

 

Now give the word "qajaavoq" (without quotation marks). In the result window the programme will respond:

 

 looked in (double click / tap) : K171 f30 t39 O215 B77

  Kr: (r25,21)  _qajaavoq, omkommer i kajak.

  OseP: (i84;51 1)  {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau-} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak *

  OseP(2): (i84;51 2) P * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

 

The word was found in Kr (r25,21) and in OseP (i84,51 1 and 2), see [Guide]Introduction. The meaning apparently is '[he] has perished in a kayak'. "i84;51 1" means the first segment of article (= line) no. 51 in the file i84. The second segment of this article is from the purely Greenlandic dictionary P.

 

A double click on the "K171" shown initially will display an alphabetical version of the lexicon Kr. A double click on "O215" will display an alphabetical version of the lexicon Ose(P).

 

The programme remembers the latest given word. Give it through [full articles ,+], .i.e. with signs ",+", and obtain:

 

  Kr: (r25,21)  _qajaavoq, omkommer i kajak.

  OseP: (i84,51)  {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau-} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

 

If you give the word through [+], you obtain a fuller OseP and no Kr:

 

   OseP: (i84,51)  {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau-} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

 

The English translation is also shown.

 

A double click on "51" in "i84;51" also displays the full article on the screen. And a double click on "51" in "i84,51" (with a comma) will show that region of the dictionary file i84 in a new central window. The lines are not broken at the right window border if you add a "-" in front (i.e. "-i84,51") before double clicking on "51".

 

Give a word through the push-button [+-] and see the articles as they are in the lexicon:

 

  (r25,21)  * _qajaavoq, omkommer i kajak.

  (i84,51)  "qajaa 2 10.*{qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau-} +voq . er omkommet i kajak \ has perished in a kayak * >qajauvoq: =qáinákut =ajunârpoq; _qajau%ssoqarajoqaoq, _qajau%ngajagpoq.

 

The dictionary P (after a second "*" in the articles from OseP) is given in the original, more detailed old orthography (but you must leave out "%" [and "+"] inside words). The programme otherwise transforms P to the new orthography before showing it on the screen.

 

First in the article from OseP (when you give the word through [+-]) comes the stem form. qajaa2 is an intransitive (10.) verbal stem (2). The following curly bracket tells us that this stem probably is a derivation of the stem in the word "qajaq". "PI 319:8 qayau-" is information from CED = Comparative Eskimo Dictionary. "qayau-" is the proposed Proto Inuit form; it occurs as no. 8 on page 319 in the second edition (2010) of CED. A double click on "8" after "319:" will show all occurencies of this proto-form in OseP; here is just this one. You may give terms like "PI" in and obtain a short explanation.

 

("qajaavoq" and) a double click on "f30" will display a list of proto-forms (but "qajaavoq" is not a proto-form). ("qajaavoq" and) a double click on "t39" will display an alphabetical list of the stem forms. They are also in the files i, but not in alphabetical order.

 

OseP contains two Greenlandic-Danish dictionaries, viz O and s = S, see [Guide]Introduction. " . " after the entry word indicates that it is in both dictionaries, and then O and the English translation (e) of s are shown (unless you gave the word through [full articles ,+]). You may obtain s by giving the word through the push-button [Ose ;], i.e. wih a sign ";":

 

  (s94,114)  "qajaavoq    >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak

 

O and s say the same in this case.

 

The programme also looked for the given word in the alphabetically ordered Bdg = Danish-Greenlandic dictionary (1960). ("qajaavoq" and) a double click on "B77" will show the place in Bdg where the programme stopped its search for the given word (which isn't Danish).

 

If you give a Danish or a Greenlandic word through the push-button [Bdg '], i.e. with a sign "'", the programme will show the article segments in Bdg where the word occurs. The programme shows the first up to 100 finds. You may write another maximum number between 1 and 200 (and a space) before the word given in.

 

If you give a Danish word through the push-button [Ose ;], the programme will show the first up to 100 article segments in Ose(P) where the word occurs. Again you may give another maximum number (1-200) and a space before the word given in. "3 kajak" through [Ose ;] thus gives:

 

  OseP: (i2;16 2)  =qaanni >assattorpaa : S han banker sin kajak (for at blive hørt) E he strikes on his kayak in order to be heard

  OseP(2): (i2;48 1)  {cf. assakarpoq; PI 11:4 akSagiitkutaq} >assagiikkut . harpunholder ( en kajak) E harpoon knob (peg on the kayak on which the harpoon rests to prevent it from slipping overboard) *

  OseP(3): (i3;66 1)  {ajappaa 'støder det fra sig'; PE 63:2 ayagaR} >ajaaq . tværtræ (på en kajak), tværbjælke (på et skib) E cross-tree |

 

 

[analysis -]

 

If you give a word through [analysis -], i.e. with a sign "-", the programme will attempt an analysis. Try with "qajaavoq":

 

qajaavoq, qa=jaa=voq (2 4 3)

  OseP: (i84;51 1)  {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau- +} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak *

  OseP(2): (i84;51 2) P * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

 

  More (double click / tap) :  K r p g 0 4 11

 

Now the programme also shows how the given word is divided in (Greenlandic) syllables. The second syllable has the 'weight' 2+2=4 because the vowel is long (aa). The third syllable has the 'weight' 2+1=3 because it ends in a consonant (q). The word is pronounced with most stress on the heavier second syllable. When the syllables of a word have equal 'weight', there is more stress on the first, third and fifth etc. syllable from the end.

 

Last comes a line with letters and numbers. You may select one of them at a time by double clicking or by pointing and tapping. Selection of a letter will show what the programme has found in the dictionary in question.

 

("-qajaavoq" and) selection of "p" gives:

 

p : tekstord i Ordbogeeraq E word in the text of (Ose)P  (dobbeltklik tal efter ';' viser hele artiklen E double click on number after ';' shows the full article)

 

  OseP: (i83;213 12)  -#qaannakkut =pivoq: =qajaavoq

 

  More (double click / tap) :  K r O g 0 4 11

 

The programme shows the first up to 100 article segments in Kr, OseP or Bdg where the word occurs. You may write another maximum number (1-200) and a space before the word given in to analysis.

 

Selection of "0" (the digit) gives:

 

0 : enkleste analyse(r) E simplest analysis/analyses

 

   Analysis :  qajaa/voq/  =  qajaa2.Poq1.€0  (indi,3e)

  <qajaa2  verbalstamme E verbal stem>  OseP: (i84;51 1)  {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau-} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak *

  <.Poq1  indikativ (fremsættemåde) E indicative>

  <.€0  3. person ental E 3rd person singular>

 

  More (double click / tap) :  K r O p g 4 11

 

"qajaavoq" is probably the verbal stem qajaa2 with inflexion for indicative, 3rd person singular. "4" gives a deeper analysis:

 

4

 

   Analysis :  qaja/a/voq/  =  qajaq4.u2.Poq1.€0  (indi,3e) [-u-]

  <qajaq4  navnestamme E noun stem>  OseP: (i83;213 1)  {PE 319:5 qayaR} >qajaq . kajak S (med mand i) E kayak (with a man in it) |

  <.u2  føjes til navnestamme, danner verbalstamme E is added to a noun stem, forms a verbal stem>  'være (en/et) ..' .uvoq

  <.Poq1  indikativ (fremsættemåde) E indicative>

  <.€0  3. person ental E 3rd person singular>

 

  More (double click / tap) :  K r O p g 0 11

 

The stem qajaa2 'perish in a kayak' may be qajaq4 expanded with .u2 'be (a) ..'. Or "qajaavoq" may be "qajaq" with the affix ".uvoq", as it is usually put. "qajaavoq" doesn't mean 'he is a kayak', however; but the kayaker is one with his vessel, and even more so when he hangs dead in it. Later, only the kayak is found.

 

You may obtain the full article i83;213 with a double click on the line number (213) after "i83;". A double click on the line number after the now shown "i83," (with a comma) will show the dictionary file i83 in a new central window. Here you may see the stem form.

 

 

[-+] [--]

 

If you give a word through the push-button [-+], the programme will also take Danish word parts into consideration during analysis. See [Guide]Analysis with Danish.

 

If the programme (still) cannot recognize all the parts of the given word, it will add a "0" before the numbers (for found analyses) smaller than 10: 00, 01 and so on. Numbers greater than 9 (09) are not shown in this case.

 

If you give a number for found analyses (here 0 or 4) through the push-button [--], the programme will show relation-and-Role diagrams for those analyses in a new window. See [Grammar]Diagrams.

 

 

[right part /]

 

The affix .uvoq occurs in the shape "avoq" in "qajaavoq". If you cannot remember the standard form, give "avoq" through the pushbutton [right part /] and obtain some suggestions:

 

 looked in (double click / tap) : t4 O6

  <føjes til verbalstamme E is added to a verbal stem>  OseP: (i139,127 1)  (2) {-a/}  /avoq : .(T)ivoq '.. (nogen/noget)'

  <føjes til verbalstamme E is added to a verbal stem>  OseP(2): (i146,225 1)  (2) {-i/}  /avoq : .javoq 'er tilbøjelig til at .., .. let'

  <føjes til ord eller navnestamme E is added to a word or a noun stem>  OseP(3): (i155,177 1)  (0/4) {-a/}  /avoq : .uvoq 'er (en/et) ..'

 

The third entry says that "avoq" after a (: {-a/}) may be .uvoq. The first entry suggests the "semi-transitive" (or Object-suppressing) affix .(T)ivoq instead. It is added to a transitive verbal stem. (The still more complex analysis obtained with "11" above in fact involves .(T)ivoq.)

 

You obtain explanation to most other terms and signs if you give them through [input]. The class digits (0/2/4) must be given in parentheses: "(0)" etc. A list is shown initially in [Grammar]Class digits, inflexions and affixes.

 

 

[reverse g_]

 

If you give a word through this push-button, it will be reversed and looked up in a reverse Greenlandic word list. With "qajaavoq" we obtain:

 

qajaavoq, reverse: qovaajaq

 looked in (double click / tap): a138

 

A double click on "a138" will now show the entry words in the files O that resemble "qajaavoq" on the right.