How to use the programme

 

In [Guide]Introduction it is explained how you make GroenOrd available on your computer. As said, the running programme has a topmost bar with a number of push-buttons on the screen: [input] [full articles +] [++] [+-] [Bdg '] [analysis -] [(with) Danish -+] [right part /]. Last come: [Guide] [Grammar] [vejledning] [grammatik] and Window.

 

The main window contains an upper left window with results and a lower right window with guide or dictionary. If you place the cursor on the uppermost blue bar of a window and press the left mouse button down, the window will follow the cursor.

 

Here follows an explanation to the first eight push-buttons, ending with [right part /].

 

 

[input] [full articles +] [++] [+-] [Bdg ']

 

The first push-button above is [input]; if you push it, a small dialog box will pop up. Here you may write the Greenlandic or Danish word that is to be looked up. You may also point at the word in a window and double click the left mouse button, or point and tap the mouse pad on a laptop PC. It is possible to write in the window 'resultater / results'.

 

Now give the word "qajaavoq" (without quotation marks). In the result window the programme will respond:

 

 looked in (double click/tap) : K35 f16 O105 B77 d119

  Kr: (r25,21)  _qajaavoq, omkommer i kajak.

  OseP: (i84;88 1)  {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau-} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak *

  OseP(2): (i84;88 2)  [qajaa 2 10.] * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, qajaangajappoq

 

The word was found in Kr (r25,21) and in OseP (i84,88 1 and 2), see [Guide]Introduction. The meaning apparently is '[he] has perished in a kayak', in Greenlandic: "qaannakkut ajunaarpoq". E.g. "i84;88 1" means the first segment of article (= line) no. 88 in the file i84.

 

A double click on "K35" or "O105" gives the place in an alphabetical list of entry words. The dictionary files proper, r and i, are more comprehensive and their lines are not ordered alphabetically.

 

The programme remembers the latest given word. It will show full lexicon articles if you give an entry word through the push-button [full articles +], i.e. with a sign "+":

 

  Kr: (r25,21)  _qajaavoq, omkommer i kajak.

  OseP: (i84,88)  {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau-} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

 

A double click on "88" in "i84;88" also displays the full article on the screen. But a double click on "88" in "i84,88" (with a comma) will show that region of the dictionary file i84 in a new window down right. The lines are not broken at the right window border if you add a "-" in front (i.e. "-i84,88") before double clicking on "88".

 

If you give a word through the push-button [++], i.e. with signs "++", the programme will also show some references in Ose to other articles and dictionaries. Here are none, but see below under [analysis -].

 

Give a word through the push-button [+-] and see the articles just as they are in the lexicon:

 

  (r25,21)  * _qajaavoq, omkommer i kajak.

  (i84,88)  "qajaa 2 10.*{qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau-} +voq . er omkommet i kajak \ has perished in a kayak * >qajauvoq: =qáinákut =ajunârpoq; _qajau%ssoqarajoqaoq, _qajau%ngajagpoq.

 

The dictionary P (after an "*" last in the articles from OseP) is now shown in the original, more detailed old orthography. The programme otherwise transforms P to new orthography before it is shown on the screen.

 

First in the article from OseP (when you give the word through [+-]) comes the stem form. qajaa2 is an intransitive (10.) verbal stem (2). The following curly bracket tells us that this stem probably is a derivation of the stem in the word "qajaq". "PI 319:8 qayau-" is information from CED = Comparative Eskimo Dictionary. "qayau-" is the proposed Inuit proto-form; it occurs as no. 8 on page 319 in the second edition (2010) of CED. A double click on "8" after "319:" will show all occurencies of this proto-form in OseP; here is just this one. You may give terms like "PI" in and obtain a short explanation. A full list is found in [Guide]Abbreviations in CED. A double click on "f16" will show a list of proto-forms and their place (such as 319:8) in CED.

 

The programme also looked for the given word in the alphabetically ordered Bdg = the Danish-Greenlandic dictionary (1960) by Aage Bugge and others, see [Guide]Introduction. ("qajaavoq" and) a double click on "B77" will show the (approximate) place in Bdg where the programme stopped its search for the given word (which isn't Danish).

 

If you give a Danish or Greenlandic word through the push-button [Bdg '], i.e. with a sign "'", the programme will show the segments of Bdg where the word occurs.

 

The programme shows the first up to 50 finds in each dictionary or word list. You may write another maximum number between 1 and 200 (and a space) before the given word, e.g. "3 kajak".

 

 

[analysis -]

 

If you give a word through [analysis -], i.e. with a sign "-", the programme will attempt an analysis. Try with "qajaavoq":

 

qajaavoq, qa=jaa=voq (2 4 3)

  OseP: (i84;88 1)  {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau- +} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak *

  OseP(2): (i84;88 2)  * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

 

  More (double click/tap) :  K r P g 0 4 11

 

Now the programme also shows how the given word is divided in (Greenlandic) syllables. The second syllable has the 'weight' 2+2=4 because the vowel is long (aa). The third syllable has the 'weight' 2+1=3 because it ends in a consonant (q). The word is pronounced with most stress on the heavier second syllable. When the syllables of a word have equal 'weight', there is more stress on the first, third and fifth etc. syllable from the end.

 

Last comes a line with letters and numbers. You may select one of them at a time by double clicking or by pointing and tapping. Selection of a letter will show what the programme has found in the dictionary in question. If you give the letter with a sign "-", the articles are shown just as they are in the dictionary.

 

("-qajaavoq" and) selection of "P" gives:

 

P : tekstord i Ordbogeeraq E word in the text of (Ose)P  (dobbeltklik tal efter ';' viser hele artiklen E double click on number after ';' shows the full article)

  OseP: (i84;25 12)  -#qaannakkut =pivoq: =qajaavoq

 

  More (double click/tap) :  K r O g 0 4 11

 

(Other uses of "P" will be shown if the latest analysis gave nothing under this letter.)

 

Selection of "0" (the digit) gives:

 

0 : enkleste analyse(r) E simplest analysis/analyses

   Analysis :  qajaa/voq/  =  qajaa2.Poq1.€0  (indi,3e)

  <qajaa2  verbalstamme E verbal stem>  OseP: (i84;88)  {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau-} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

  <.Poq1  indikativ (fremsættemåde) E indicative>

  <.€0  3. person ental E 3rd person singular>

 

  More (double click/tap) :  K r O P g 4 11

 

"qajaavoq" is probably the verbal stem qajaa2 with inflexion for indicative, 3rd person singular. "4" gives a more complex analysis:

 

4

   Analysis :  qaja/a/voq/  =  qajaq4.u2.Poq1.€0  (indi,3e) [-u-]

  <qajaq4  navnestamme E noun stem>  OseP: (i84;201)  {PE 319:5 qayaR} >qajaq . kajak S (med mand i) E kayak (with a man in it) | >qaannat . kajakker, kajakmænd | >qaannat =marluk =aggerput: S der kommer to kajakmænd roende E there are two kayak men who come paddling | -#qaannap -#qaannamut -#qaannanut | >qajara =iluarsarallarlara: S lad mig først ordne min kajak! E let me first arrange my kayak | -#qaannama -#qajaaqajarpoq | -§qajakasigaqajakua #qajapilorujussuaq | #qajarsiaq #qajarsiaa | -§qajarsissagaluarama #qajassaa * >qajaq, t aannqajartaarpoq, #qajarsiorpoq, &qajassiaq  | >qaannat, tq | -#qaannakkut =pivoq: =qajaavoq

  <.u2  føjes til navnestamme, danner verbalstamme E is added to a noun stem, forms a verbal stem>  'er (en/et) ..' .uvoq

  <.Poq1  indikativ (fremsættemåde) E indicative>

  <.€0  3. person ental E 3rd person singular>

 

  More (double click/tap) :  K r O P g 0 11

 

The stem qajaa2 'perish in a kayak' may be qajaq4 expanded with .u2 'be (a) ..'. Or "qajaavoq" may be "qajaq" with the affix ".uvoq", as it is usually put. You may enter them all by double clicking. "qajaavoq" doesn't mean 'he is a kayak', however; but the kayaker is one with his vessel, and even more so when he hangs dead in it. Later, only the kayak is found.

 

Double click on a word with a sign other than "=" will show what another article or dictionary says about the word. Try it, and see an explanation in [Guide]The dictionaries.

 

If you give a word through the push-button [full articles +], viz. with a single "+" in front, the references in Ose to other articles or dictionaries are left out:

 

  Kr: (r25,10)  §qajaq, 2. (pl. =qaannat), 1) en kajak (den eskimoiske mandfolkebåd, her altid kun til én mand og med én åre med blad i begge ender; ellers også bekendt under navnet 'bajdar'); 2) manden i sin kajak. Jvf. =umiaq.

  OseP: (i84,25)  {PE 319:5 qayaR} >qajaq . kajak E kayak (with a man in it) | >qaannat O kajakker, kajakmænd | >qaannat =marluk =aggerput: S der kommer to kajakmænd roende E there are two kayak men who come paddling | >qajara =iluarsarallarlara: S lad mig først ordne min kajak! E let me first arrange my kayak * >qajaq, t aannqajartaarpoq, #qajarsiorpoq, &qajassiaq  | >qaannat, tq | -#qaannakkut =pivoq: =qajaavoq

 

 

[(with) Danish -+]

 

If you give a word through this push-button, the programme will also take Danish word parts into consideration during analysis. See [Guide]Analysis with Danish.

 

If the programme (still) cannot recognize all the parts of the given word, it will add a "0" before the numbers (for analyses) smaller than 10: 00, 01 and so on. Numbers greater than 9 (09) are not shown in this case.

 

If you give a number for already found analyses with signs "--", the programme will show relation-and-Role diagrams for those analyses in a new window, see [Grammar]Diagrams.

 

 

[right part /]

 

The affix .uvoq occurs in the shape "avoq" in "qajaavoq". If you cannot remember the standard form, give "avoq" through the pushbutton [right part /] and obtain some suggestions:

 

 looked in (double click/tap) : O3

  <føjes til verbalstamme E is added to a verbal stem>  OseP: (i139,130)  (2) {-a/}  /avoq : .(T)ivoq '.. (nogen/noget)'

  <føjes til verbalstamme E is added to a verbal stem>  OseP(2): (i146,198)  (2) {-i/}  /avoq : .javoq 'er tilbøjelig til at .., .. let'

  <føjes til ord eller navnestamme E is added to a word or a noun stem>  OseP(3): (i155,139)  (0/4) {-a/}  /avoq : .uvoq 'er (en/et) ..'

 

The third entry says that "avoq" after a (: {-a/}) may be .uvoq. The first suggests the "semi-transitive" (or Object-suppressing) affix .(T)ivoq instead. It is added to a transitive verbal stem. (The still more complex analysis obtained with "11" in fact involves .(T)ivoq.)

 

You obtain explanation to most other terms and signs if you give them in through [input]. The class digits (0/2/4) must be given in parentheses: "(0)" etc. A list can be found in [Grammar]Class digits and inflexions.