Compounds (yhdyssanat)


Look again at the word "aallonpohja". Give it through [F analysis -] and obtain:


  suomi:  (i2;106 4)  ;aallonpohja


  More (double click / tap) :  0 4 5


0 : simplest analysis/analyses

  suomi:  (i2;106 4)  ;aallonpohja . bølgedal


  More (double click / tap) :  0 4 5


The word is analyzed as the noun stem aallonpohja4 with the zero inflexion (4).€0 (s,n) = singular, nominative.


"4" and "5" give deeper analyses:




   Analysis :  aallon/pohja/  =  aallon9.pohja4.€0  (s,n)

  suomi:  (i2;106 1) >aallon- (=aalto) : ;aallonharja . bølgekam, bølgetop |

  suomi:  (i64;117 1) >pohja  . bund; (=perusta) grundlag; (=kengänpohja) sål _ |

  <.€0  singular, nominative>


  More (double click / tap) :  o 0 5




   Analysis :  aallo/n/pohja/  =  aallo4.n9.pohja4.€0  (s,n)

  suomi:  (i2;108 1) >aalto  . bølge _ _aallon |

  <.n9  connector, < the inflexion for singular, genitive>

  suomi:  (i64;117 1) >pohja  . bund; (=perusta) grundlag; (=kengänpohja) sål _ |

  <.€0  singular, nominative>


  More (double click / tap) :  o 0 4


The stem aallonpohja4 is composed of aalto4 and pohja4 with a connector (yhdistäjä) (4).n9. The connector is from the inflexion (4).n0 (s,g) = singular, genitive. "aallon-" ('wave-') is the same as aalto4.n9.


Stems and words can be said to have (underlyingly) 9 on their left, also in Danish. And words can be said to have (underlyingly) 0 on their right, also in Finnish.


When (4).n9 induces no changes inside the preceding stem, we can write it with a "§" instead of "&" before the second part of compounds in the lexicon. "Kaspianmeri" (Kaspia/n/meri/) through [+-] thus gives:


  (i1,243)  "Kaspia  : §meri 4 . Kaspiske hav


The corresponding Danish connector has the substance "s" and is written with a "#" instead of "&" before the second part of compounds in the lexicon.


Another Danish possibility is unstressed "e" (shwa) and "!" in the lexicon between consonants which may not combine.


Both languages have a frequent connector (& =) (4/0).€9 with the substance € = zero, as in aalto//pelti/ = bølge//blik/ (see below) and in ord//bog/ = sana//kirja/ (dictionary).


Finnish always inserts a "-" between two identical vowels in a compound stem, as in "lehto-orvokki" (lehto/-/orvokki/). The programme will find "lehto" and "orvokki" in the lexicon, and it will accept a form "lehtoorvokki" (lehto//orvokki/). But Finnish written "oo" denotes long "o", so the latter form is not correct. There is a syllable border between the two components.


I have only to a very limited extent gathered the Danish compounds under their first component. I am more interested in Finnish (here), and it is more regular.


Next give the Finnish word "aaltopeltikatto" through [F analysis -]:


   Analysis :  aaltopelti//katto/  =  aaltopelti4.€9.katto4.€0  (s,n)

  suomi:  (c1,179) >aaltopelti  .   (i2;108 7)  ;aaltopelti _ |

  <.€9  connector>

  suomi:  (i32;75 1) >katto  . (=ulkokatto) tag, (=sisäkatto) loft _ |

  <.€0  singular, nominative>


  More (double click/tap) :  1 4 5 9 13




   Analysis :  aalto//peltikatto/  =  aalto4.€9.peltikatto4.€0  (s,n)

  suomi:  (i2;108 1) >aalto  . bølge _ _aallon |

  <.€9  connector>

  suomi:  (c76,360) >peltikatto   i61;252_003

  <.€0  singular, nominative>


  More (double click/tap) :  0 4 5 9 13


Finnish compounds in general come late in the articles in the files i, but then they are also first word in a file c. The programme prefers the analysis "aaltopelti" ('corrugated iron') + "katto" ('roof') because "peltikatto" ('tin roof') is not in the pocket dictionary. "aaltopelti" ('bølgeblik') is in the Danish-Finnish part of this dictionary, as indicated with an "_" after.


Suomi-englanti-suursanakirja (2012) has both "aaltopelti" ('corrugated iron') and "peltikatto" ('tin roof') as entry words. The medium-sized Suomi-ruotsi-suomi sanakirja (2007) conversely has "peltikatto" ('plåttak') and not "aaltopelti", but "aaltolevy" ('korrugerad plåt') instead of the latter.


"4" and "5" give a deeper analysis of "katto" resp. "aaltopelti":




   Analysis :  aaltopelti//katt/o/  =  aaltopelti4.€9.katta2.O4.€0  (s,n)

  suomi:  (c1,179) >aaltopelti  .   (i2;108 7)  ;aaltopelti _ |

  <.€9  connector>

  suomi:  (i32;71 1) >kattaa 2 . overdække, dække; belægge; (=katto) tække _ _katettu |

  <.O4  jako (jakaa), lento (lentää), lähtö (lähteä), teko (tehdä), pelko (pelätä), näkö (nähdä), kuulo (kuulla); pako (paeta), löytö (löytää)>

  <.€0  singular, nominative>


  More (double click / tap) :  0 1 5 9 13




   Analysis :  aalto//pelti//katto/  =  aalto4.€9.pelti4.€9.katto4.€0  (s,n)

  suomi:  (i2;108 1) >aalto  . bølge _ _aallon |

  <.€9  connector>

  suomi:  (i61;252 1) >pelti  . blik; (=paistopelti) plade; (=savupelti) spjæld _ |

  <.€9  connector>

  suomi:  (i32;75 1) >katto  . (=ulkokatto) tag, (=sisäkatto) loft _ |

  <.€0  singular, nominative>


  More (double click/tap) :  0 1 4 9 13


With "9" (= 4 + 5) you get the deeper analysis of both. "13" gives "aaltopelti" + a wild analysis of "katto".


The analysis of "aaltopeltikatto" takes some time because of the many stems found in the files i + c. If you give the word through the push-button [,-], the analysis is faster because the programme doesn't search the files c:


  More (double click / tap) : 0 4 13


"0" and "4" correspond to "5" and "9" above.


Many botanical names are compounds. "ahkeraliisa" ('busy Lizzie', Impatiens) is an example. "liisa" through [full articles +] gives:


   (i45,98) >liisa  ; | ;liisankukka


The lonely ";" says that the word is used as the second part of compounds. Give "liisa" through [F reverse k_] and double click on the shown "a30", if you want to see the entry words that resemble "liisa" on the right. ("liisa" is also the first part of "liisankukka", a different flower.)


Give "Impatiens" through the push-button [F-D,D-F] and obtain:


 looked in (double click / tap) : I1 o2 s1 q1 T1 n1 y10

  suomi:  (i27,272) >kC433   Balsamin-slægten, ,Impatiens 654-655 (384-385)


Impatiens belongs to the Balsamin family, which is described on page 654 and 655 in Bo Mossberg and Lennart Stenberg: Nordens flora, oversat og bearbejdet til dansk af Jon Feilberg, Gyldendal 2020. (And on page 384 and 385 in the previous edition: Den nye nordiske Flora, Gyldendal 2003 and 2014.)


A double click on "272" in "i27,272" will enter a list of the plant families in Nordens flora:




"kC432  Balsaminfamilien

"kC433   Balsamin-slægten, ,Impatiens 654-655 (384-385)

"kC434  Floksfamilien

"kC435   Floks-slægten, Phlox 655-656 (482, 887)

"kC436    Limfrø, Collomia linearis 656 (482)

"kC437   Blåhoved-slægten, Gilia 656 (482)

"kC438   Jakobsstige-slægten, ,Polemonium 656-657 (482-483)

"kC439  Kodriverfamilien

"kC440   Kodriver-slægten, ,Primula 658-659 (460-461)

"kC441    Skov-alpeklokke, Soldanella montana 659 (461)

"kC442   Fjeldarve-slægten, ,Androsace 660 (462)

"kC443    Vandrøllike, ,Hottonia palustris 660 (462)

"kC444   Fredløs-slægten, ,Lysimachia 661-664 (463-464)

"kC445    Samel, ,Samolus valerandi 664 (466)

"kC446  Fjeldprydfamilien

"kC447    Fjeldpryd, ,Diapensia lapponica 665 (450)

"kC448    Galax, Galax urceolata 665

"kC449  Trompetbladfamilien

"kC450    Trompetblad, Sarracenia purpurea 665 (241)

"kC451  Lyngfamilien

"kC452   Vintergrøn-slægten, ,Pyrola 666-667 (450-451)

"kC453    Ensidig vintergrøn, ,Orthilia secunda 668 (452)

"kC454    Enblomstret vintergrøn, ,Moneses uniflora 668 (452)

"kC455    Snylterod, ,Monotropa hypopitys 668 (452)

"kC456    Skærmvintergrøn, Chimphila umbellata 669 (453)

"kC457   Kalmia-slægten, Kalmia 669

"kC457'   Kryblyng, ,Loiseleuria procumbens 669 (453)

"kC458    Blålyng, ,Phyllodoce caerulea 669 (453)

"kC459    Kantlyng, ,Cassiope tetragona 670 (454)

"kC460    Moslyng, ,Harrimanella hypnoides 670 (454)

"kC461   Rhododendron-slægten, ,Rhododendron 670-671 (454-455)

"kC462    Læderløv, ,Chamaedaphne calyculata 671 (455)

"kC463   Erica-slægten, ,Erica 672 (456)

"kC464    Hedelyng, ,Calluna vulgaris 672 (456)

"kC465    Rosmarinlyng, ,Andromeda polifolia 673 (457)

"kC466    Aksel-druelyng, Leucothoë axillaris 673

"kC467   Bølle-slægten, ,Vaccinium 673-675 (457-459)

"kC468    Bjerg-melbærris, ,Arctous (/ ,Arctostaphylos) alpinus 674 (458)

"kC469    Hede-melbærris, ,Arctostaphylos uva-ursi 674 (458)

"kC470    Revling, ,Empetrum nigrum 675 (459)



In the first turn I overlooked Loiseleuria procumbens ("sielikkö"), kC457'. If I have not overlooked more, all the latin family names in Nordens flora will be in this list. And everything is in alphabetical order in the files y. Line no. N in the index file y0 is the beginning of the first line (with a content) in the file yN.


A double click on ",Impatiens" (or "Impatiens" through the push-button [(F-)D ,]) gives the full names from three smaller flora books:


  suomi:  (i25;23 6)  ;jättipalsami {Impatiens glandulifera M126} Kæmpe-balsamin |

  suomi(2):  (i44;68 30)  ;lehtopalsami {Impatiens noli-tangere G158 M126 O168} Spring-balsamin |

  suomi(3):  (i71;209 6)  ;rikkapalsami {Impatiens parviflora G158 O168} Småblomstret balsamin |


"G158" after two of these names indicates that there is a photo and description on page 158 in "Danmarks flora efter voksested" (Ina Giversen, Jørgen Jensen, Birgit Kristiansen, Lars Norman, Gyldendal 2012). "M126" after two of the names indicates that there is a drawing and short description on page 126 in Maastokasvio (Bo Mossberg, Lennart Stenberg, suomeksi toimittanut Pekka Vuokko, Tammi 2007), and also in Feltfloraen (Bo Mossberg, Lennart Stenberg, oversat fra svensk af Jon Feilberg, Gyldendal 2010). "O168" after two of the names indicates that there is a drawing and description on page 168 in Otavan värikasvio, the edition from 2006.


Maastokasvio and Feltfloraen are adapted translations of "Svensk Fältflora" from 2006, which is an abridged version of "Den nya nordiska floran" from 2003. The Danish version of the latter is "Den nye nordiske Flora" (2003 and 2014) mentioned above.


"G158", "M126" and "O168" are formally Danish words in the Finnish-Danish dictionary. You may give them through [(F-)D ,] and see all the article segments that contain them. Or you may give them through [F-D,D-F] and double click on the initially shown "y7" resp. "y14" and "y18".


The three Finnish names above end in "palsami". The last part of the corresponding Danish names is "balsamin". "palsami" through [full articles +] gives:


   (i60,67) >palsami  _ | >palsamoida _ >palsamointi

   (i60,68) >palsami  [=lehtopalsami, =jättipalsami; =rikkapalsami]


and "balsamin":


   (t2,441) >balsamin : ,balsamin ,Kæmpe-balsamin ,Spring-balsamin


A double click on ",balsamin" gives:


  suomi:  (i71;209 6)  ;rikkapalsami {Impatiens parviflora G158 O168} Småblomstret balsamin |


"=rikkapalsami", which is not in Maastokasvio, is given after a semicolon (instead of comma) in the square brackets above.


A double click on ";rikkapalsami" or "=rikkapalsami" gives:


 looked in (double click / tap) : I71 o136 s68 q36 T28 n36 y115

  suomi:  (i71;209 6)  ;rikkapalsami {Impatiens parviflora G158 O168} Småblomstret balsamin |


Give it through [full articles +] and obtain:


   (i71,209) >rikka  . snavs, skidt; (=jäte) affald _ | ;rikkaimuri ;rikkakasa ;rikkakihveli | ;rikkakukonkannus {Consolida regalis M068 O112} Korn-ridderspore | ;rikkalapio . fejeblad _ | ;rikkanenätti {Rorippa sylvestris M082 O132} Vej-guldkarse | ;rikkapalsami {Impatiens parviflora G158 O168} Småblomstret balsamin | ;rikkapähkämö {Stachys arvensis M172} Ager-galtetand | ;rikkarehuvirna {Vicia sativa ssp. segetalis M112} Ager-vikke | ;rikkaruoho . ukrudt | ;rikkaruohoinen | ;rikkasinappi {Sinapis arvensis M090 O130} Ager-sennep | ;rikkatunkio ;rikkaäes


and through [,+]:


   (i71,209) >rikka  . snavs, skidt; (=jäte) affald _ | &kukonkannus . Korn-ridderspore | &lapio . fejeblad _ | &nenätti . Vej-guldkarse | &palsami . Småblomstret balsamin | &pähkämö . Ager-galtetand | &rehuvirna . Ager-vikke | &ruoho . ukrudt | &sinappi . Ager-sennep


None of the 1.250 Finnish botanical names consists of more than one word. There is more compounding in Finnish than in Danish.


The given word is analysed in a stem chain from the left end and a suffix chain from the right end. The last morpheme in a valid stem chain is a stem; it has 9 on its left and < 9 on its right. Suffix chains contain no morpheme with 9 on its left or right. An analysis consists of a valid stem chain and a fitting suffix chain.


The programme first finds all the stem chains that correspond with the left end of the given word. And then it builds suffix chains from the right end. It calculates a "weight" of the chains, and it prefers word analyses with a smaller total weight. Most morphemes contribute 2 to the chain's weight.


The programme was developed originally to Greenlandic (Eskimo), which has a lot of derivations and very few compounds. A Greenlandic stem chain rarely contains more than one stem, and never more than two. But Greenlandic has a richer system of inflection for person, and therefore even more inflexions than Finnish. So a Greenlandic suffix chain can easily contain many morphemes.


The files c and r, where compounds (from later in the dictionary articles) are given as stems, helps the Finnish programme to analyse long stem chains correctly. The structure found will be a binary tree. But you may give long Finnish words through the push-button [,-] as explained, and save time.