How to use the programme

 

In [Guide]Introduction it is explained how you make SuomiTan available on your computer. As said, the running programme has a topmost bar with a number of push-buttons on the screen: [F-D,D-F] [full articles +] [+-] [,+] [(D-)F _] [(F-)D ,] [analysis -] [F reverse k_] [D reverse b_] [Vejledning] [Guide] and Window.

 

The main window contains an upper left window with results and a central window with guide or dictionary. If you place the cursor on the uppermost blue bar of a window and press the left mouse button down, the window will follow the cursor.

 

Here follows an explanation to the first nine push-buttons, ending with [D reverse b_]. We start with the first four:

 

 

[F-D,D-F] [full articles +] [+-] [,+]

 

The first push-button is [F-D,D-F]; if you push it, a small dialog box will pop up. Here you may write the Finnish or Danish word that is to be looked up. You may also point at a word in a window and double click the left mouse button, or tap the mouse pad on a laptop computer. It is possible to write in the window 'results'.

 

Now give the word "ahkera" (without quotation marks). In the window "results" the programme will respond:

 

 looked in (double click/tap) : I2 o3 s1 T1 n3 y20

  suomi:  (i2;283 1) >ahkera  . flittig _ |

 

"ahkera" is Finnish (suomi) and means 'flittig' in Danish. "i2;283 1" indicates the first segment of article no. 283 in the dictionary file i2. "_" after the word refers to the Danish-Finnish dictionary, see under [(D-)F _] [(F-)D ,] below.

 

The programme will remember the latest given word. Give it again through the push-button [full articles +], i.e. with a sign +, and obtain:

 

   (i2,283) >ahkera  . flittig _ | >aherrus >ahertaa >ahertaja >ahkerasti | ;ahkeraliisa

 

The basic word is "ahkera". The following words with a sign ">" are derivations (johdokset) of it. "ahkeraliisa" (with a sign ";") is a compound (yhdyssana) of "ahkera" and "liisa" from the name 'Liisa'. It is the Finnish name of the plant 'busy Lizzie' (Impatiens).

 

If you give a word through the push-button [+-], the articles are shown in the form they have in the dictionary:

 

  i2,283  "ahkera  . flittig _ | >aherrus >ahertaa >ahertaja +sti | &liisa

 

Alternatively you may double click on the "I2" shown first when you give the word through [F-D,D-F], and see this part of the lexicon file i2 in a new central window. Each article in the dictionary occupies a line in the file. If you write a "-" in front of "I2" before double clicking, i.e. give "-I2", the lines are not broken at the right window border.

 

If you give a word through the push-button [,+], only the words in the pocket dictionary and the botanical names are shown:

 

   (i2,283) >ahkera  . flittig

 

 

[(D-)F _] [(F-)D ,]

 

"ahkera" through [F-D,D-F] and a double click on "s1" will show all occurencies of the word in the Danish-Finnish dictionary. You may also give "ahkera" through the push-button [(D-)F _], i.e. with a sign "_", and obtain:

 

  dansk:  (t8,256) >flink  . kiltti, ystävällinen, kelpo; hyvä, ahkera

  dansk:  (t8,271) >flittig  . ahkera

  dansk:  (t22,336) >morakker  . liian ahkera työntekijä

  dansk:  (t23,537) >myreflittig  . ahkera kuin muurahainen

 

A number of synonyms and examples of use are shown. "_" after a Finnish word indicates that the Danish-Finnish dictionary says something (more) about it. There are also some Finnish words with a sign "_", which would otherwise occur solely in the Danish-Finnish dictionary.

 

If you give a Danish word (e.g. "flittig") through the push-button [(F-)D ,], i.e. with a sign ",", the programme will show all the occurrencies of the word in the Finnish-Danish dictionary:

 

  suomi:  (i2;238 1) >ahkera  . flittig _ |

  suomi:  (i91,227) >uuras  . flittig, ihærdig

  suomi:  (i91;247 1) >uuttera  . flittig, driftig _ _uutteroida |

 

The sign "," is used with Danish botanical names in the Danish-Finnish dictionary; the full botanical names are in the Finnish-Danish dictionary, see the last part of [Guide]Compounds.

 

 

[analysis -]

 

If you give a Finnish or Danish word through the push-button [analysis -], the programme will attempt to analyse it in Finnish or Danish parts. "ahkera" through [analysis -] thus gives:

 

  suomi:  (i2;283 1) >ahkera  . flittig _ |

  suomi:  (i2,284) >ahkeraan 0 (=ahkera)

 

  More (double click/tap) :  s y 0

 

Now the programme shows all the signed occurences of the given word in the files i (= the dictionary I). "ahkeraan" is singular, illative of "ahkera". The programme cannot analyse illative case forms, but "ahkeraan" is an entry word in Kielitoimiston sanakirja - which just says that the form "ahkerasti" is more common.

 

The "s" in the final line with results indicates that the programme has found "ahkera" in the Danish-Finnish dictionary (T), see above under [(D-)F _] [(F-)D ,]. A double click on "s" gives:

 

s : Finnish words in the text of T

  dansk:  (t8,256) >flink . kiltti, ystävällinen, kelpo; hyvä, ahkera

  dansk:  (t8,271) >flittig . ahkera

  dansk:  (t22,336) >morakker . liian ahkera työntekijä

  dansk:  (t22,537) >myreflittig . ahkera kuin muurahainen

 

  More (double click/tap) :  o y 0

 

A double click on "y" gives:

 

y : Danish words in the text of I

  suomi:  (i1,115) >/sti 0 * 4.sti0 . helposti (helppo), ahkerasti (ahkera), sydämellisesti (sydämellinen), kahdesti (kaksi), kolmasti (kolmas)

  suomi:  (i1,125) >/taa 2 >/tää 2 * 4.tA2 . huoltaa (huoli), ymmärtää (ympäri), hirttää (hirsi), autuuttaa (autuus), sairastaa (sairas), kaunistaa (kaunis), suomalaistaa (suomalainen), ahertaa (ahkera), paimentaa (paimen)

 

  More (double click/tap) :  o s 0

 

The word "ahkera" was found in two examples of derivational morphemes; "ahkerasti" and "ahertaa" are both derivations of "ahkera". The words in such examples of derivational morphemes are exceptionally given without a sign in the Finnish-Danish dictionary (I), as if they were Danish.

 

A double click on "0" (the digit) gives:

 

0 : simplest analysis/analyses

   Analysis :  ahkera/  =  ahkera4.¤0  (s,n)

  suomi:  (i2;283 1) >ahkera  . flittig _ |

  <.¤0  singular, nominative>

 

  More (double click/tap) :  o s y

 

The word "ahkera" is analysed as the nominal stem ahkera4 with the zero inflexion (4)0 for singular, nominative ("¤" = no substance). "ahkera" is an adjective like Danish "flittig" = 'busy, eager'. Finnish adjectives and nouns take the same inflexions - when the Finnish morphemes of degree (comparison) are treated as derivatives, that is.

 

The first word in each article is the basic word, as said in the Introduction. After it come two spaces, and often a digit 0/1/2/4/5 between them.

 

After "ahkera" in the dictionary article come just the two spaces, meaning that the stem has the inflection most common for nominals with this form in the singular, nominative. Nominals with a less common (but regular) inflection are given with a digit 4, or 5 in a few cases. E.g. "suomi" is suomi 4 in the dictionary and "suomen" in singular genitive. "parfait" is parfait 5 in the dictionary and "parfait'n" in singular, genitive.

 

A digit 2 between the two spaces indicates that the word is a verb with inflexion for first infinitive, see below. All other entry words = stems are given with a digit 0 (or 1) after. "ahkeraan" (above) is an example.

 

I have added no digit for word class and inflection after the stems in the Danish-Finnish dictionary; the default value 0 is ascribed to them all. But a few small words are given with 1 in order to suppress false analyses involving them. The Finnish dictionary also has 1 (here: instead of 0) after a few small words which cannot (easily) combine with others.

 

The basic word for Finnish verbal stems is the stem with the inflexion (2).TA0 for first infinitive and with a digit 2 between the spaces after. Give e.g. "ahkeroida" through [analysis -] and obtain:

 

  suomi:  (i2;285 1) >ahkeroida 2 . beflitte sig, gøre sig umage _ |

 

  More (double click/tap) :  s 0 2 7

 

A double click on "s" now gives:

 

  dansk:  (t3,41) >beflitte =sig: ahkeroida, ponnistella, yrittää

 

  More (double click/tap) :  o 0 2 7

 

A double click on "0" gives:

 

0 : simplest analysis/analyses

   Analysis :  ahkeroi/da  =  ahkeroi2.TA0  (TA)

  suomi:  (i2,285 1) >ahkeroida 2 . beflitte sig, gøre sig umage _ |

  <.TA0  first infinitive>

 

  More (double click/tap) :  o s 2 7

 

The word is analysed as the verbal stem ahkeroi2 with the said inflexion.

 

"2" gives a deeper analysis of "ahkeroida":

 

2

   Analysis :  ahker/oi/da  =  ahkera4.Oi2.TA0  (TA)

  suomi:  (i2;283 1) >ahkera  . flittig _ |

  <.Oi2  ikävöidä (ikävä), tupakoida (tupakka), pysäköidä (pysäkki), ennakoida (ennakko), ihannoida (ihanne), hopeoida (hopea)>

  <.TA0  first infinitive>

 

  More (double click/tap) :  o s 0 7

 

The verbal stem ahkeroi2 is probably ahkera4 expanded with the derivational morpheme (4).Oi2 . The meaning of the derivational morphemes is shown with a few examples only. You may also give e.g. "/da" and "/oida".

 

"ahkeroida" through [full articles +] gives:

 

   (i2,285) >ahkeroida 2 . beflitte sig, gøre sig umage _ | >ahkerointi

 

"ahkeroida" is in the pocket dictionary and therefore has its own article. I might also have split the remaining article for "ahkera" into

 

       >ahkera  . flittig _ | >ahkerasti | ;ahkeraliisa

and

       >ahertaa 2 | >aherrus >ahertaja

 

Some articles begin with two or more equivalent basic words; e.g. "manner" through [full articles +] gives:

 

  suomi:  (i47,206) >manner  >mantere  . fastland _ | >mantereinen >mantereisuus | ;mannerilmasto _ | ;mannerjalusta ;mannerjää | ;mannerjäätikkö _ | ;mannerlaatta ;mannerliikunto | ;mannerrinne ;mannervaltio

 

"_" after "mannerilmasto" and "mannerjäätikkö" indicates that there is a translation in the Danish-Finnish dictionary. As explained above, you obtain it by (double clicking and) giving the word through the push-button [(D-)F _].

 

If you give e.g. "mantereinen" through [analysis -], the programme will also find the stem mantere4 and recognize the word correctly:

 

  suomi:  (i47,206 2)  >mantereinen >mantereisuus |

 

  More (double click/tap) :  0 6 7 8 9 11 12

 

0 : simplest analysis/analyses

   Analysis :  mantere/inen/  =  mantere4.inen4.¤0  (s,n)

  suomi:  (i47;206 1) >manner  >mantere  . fastland |

  <.inen4  aikainen (aika), hikinen (hiki), jäinen (jää), luinen (luu), käteinen (käsi), paksuinen (paksu), hopeinen (hopea), alipaineinen (alipaine)>

  <.¤0  singular, nominative>

 

  More (double click/tap) :  o 6 7 8 9 11 12

 

 

[F reverse k_] [D reverse b_]

 

If you give a word through [F reverse k_] or [D reverse b_], it will be reversed and looked up in a list of reversed Finnish resp. Danish entry words. "ahkerointi" through [F reverse k_] thus gives:

 

ahkerointi, käänteinen : itniorekha

 looked in : a76

 

A Double click on "a76" will now show all the Finnish words in the Finnish-Danish dictionary which resemble "ahkerointi" on the right.

 

"käänteinen" through [full articles +] gives:

 

  suomi:  (i40,5) >käänne  . vending, drejning; (=tien) kurve, sving; (=vaatteen) opslag _ _käänteessä | %käänteinen | ;käännekohta . vendepunkt _ | ;käännepiste

  suomi:  (i40,10) >käänteinen  . omvendt | >käänteisesti >käänteistää

 

(Finnish words in an article for a different Finnish stem are usually written with the sign "="; and similarly for Danish.)

 

A double click on "_käänteessä" gives:

 

  suomi:  (t14,154) >håndevending : =i =en >håndevending = käden käänteessä

 

"käänteinen" ('inverted') is a derivation of "käänne"; "%käänteinen" (with a sign "%" corresponding to "-" in Kielitoimiston sanakirja) indicates that it occurs as the second part of compounds.

 

"käänteis-" (or e.g. "käänteisarvo") through [full articles +] gives:

 

  (i40,11) >käänteis-  (=käänteinen) : ;käänteisarvo ;käänteisluku | ;käänteisnäyttö ;käänteissanakirja

 

käänteinen4 is the first part of these compounds. Separators "| " have been inserted so that no segment contains more than 3 words with a sign ";".