How to use the programme

 

In [Guide]Introduction it is explained how you bring The Words of West Greenlandic (Eskimo) into your computer. As said, the running programme has a topmost bar with a number of push-buttons on the screen: [input] [full articles] [as in the dictionary] [analysis] [found] [right part] [reverse] [full analysis]. Last come: [Guide] [Grammar] [vejledning] [grammatik] Window. Here follows an explanation to the first group.

 

The main window contains an upper left window with results and a lower right window with guide or dictionary. A new result window is created when you give the programme a word to analyse; the old windows are behind. If you place the cursor on the uppermost blue bar of a window and press the left mouse button down, the window will follow the cursor.

 

The (new) contents of the current result window will be copied in a file with the second name ".txt" in the folder GroenOrd where the programme is situated. If you select a file from [Guide] or [Grammar], it will also be copied. These files may be (seen and) printed with Notebook or another programme later. They will be deleted next time you start the programme.

 

 

[input]

 

The first push-button is [input]; if you push it (or press Alt F1), a small dialog box will pop up. Here you may write the Greenlandic (or Danish) word that is to be looked up. You may also mark a word in a window and just press [input]. Or you may simply double click on the word in a window. It is possible to write in the result windows (upper left).

 

When started, the programme apparently has received the word "qajaavoq". In the result window it says:

 

 søgte i (dobbeltklik) E looked in (double click) : K171 f30 O216 B76

  Kr: (r25,21)  _qajaavoq, omkommer i kajak.

  OseP: (i84;266 1)  [qajaa 2 10.] {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau- +} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak *

  OseP(2): (i84;266 2)  [qajaa 2 10.] * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, qajaangajappoq

 

("E" = English: ). A double click on "K171", "O216" or "B76" will show the (approximate) place in a lexicon where the programme stopped its search for the given word. The lexicon will be shown in a new window down right, where you may continue the search manually.

 

The programme has found the given word with the English translation '(he) has perished in a kayak' in the lexicon OseP (i84;266 1 and 2), see [Guide]Introduction.

 

"i84;266 1" indicates the first segment of article no. 266 in the dictionary file i84. A double click on the article number ("266") after "i84;" will give the full article:

 

  OseP: (i84,266)  [qajaa 2 10.] {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau- +} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

 

A double click on "266" after "i84," (with a comma) will show that region of the dictionary file i84 in a new window down right. The lines are not broken if you add a "-" in front (i.e. "-i84,266") before double clicking on "266".

 

 

[full articles]

 

The programme remembers the latest given word. It will also show full articles if you enter a word through the push-button [full articles] (or Alt F2):

 

 søgte i (dobbeltklik) E looked in (double click) : K171 f30 O216 s140 e98 P40 B76 d68 g294

  Kr: (r25,21)  _qajaavoq, omkommer i kajak.

  OseP: (i84,266)  [qajaa 2 10.] {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau- +} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

 

Now the programme has also searched the given word in some lists with words in the text of the lexica. If you give the word "perished" through [full articles] and double click on "e93", i.a. the line "perished i84;266_001" will be shown. A double click on 266_001 will show the first segment of the dictionary article i84,266, where the word "perished" occurs in the text as we have seen.

 

The square bracket in the beginning of the article for "qajaavoq" from OseP contains the stem form in the dictionary. qajaa2 is an intransitive (10.) verbal stem (2). The following curly bracket tells us that this stem probably is a derivation of the stem in the word "qajaq". "PI 319:8 qayau- +" is information from Comparative Eskimo Dictionary (CED). "319:8" (or double click on "8" after "319:") gives:

 

 søgte i (dobbeltklik) E looked in (double click) : f13

  OseP: (i84;266 1)  [qajaa 2 10.] {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau- +} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak *

  OseP(CED)(2): (i84,267)  [ ] {PI 319:8 qayau- 'capsize in kayak'; cf. umiuvoq, on which this may be based by analogy}

 

The second article is a continuation corresponding to "+" in the first. "qajaavoq" may be formed from "qajaq" in analogy with "umiuvoq" from "umiaq".

 

"qayau-" is the proposed Inuit proto-form; it occurs as no. 8 on page 319 in the second edition (2010) of CED. You may also double click on the proto-form; when it ends in a hyphen ("-") as here, click on it instead.

 

You may give terms like "PI" in and obtain a short explanation. A full list is found in [Guide]Abbreviations in CED.

 

 

[as in the dictionary]

 

If you give a word through the push-button [as in the dictionary], the programme will show the articles just as they are in the lexica:

 

 søgte i (dobbeltklik) E looked in (double click) : K171 f30 O216 s140 e98 P40 B76 d68 g294

  (r25,21)  * _qajaavoq, omkommer i kajak.

  (i84,266)  "qajaa 2 10.*{qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau- +} +voq . er omkommet i kajak \ has perished in a kayak * >qajauvoq: =qáinákut =ajunârpoq; _qajau%ssoqarajoqaoq, _qajau%ngajagpoq.

 

In the dictionary P (after an "*" last in the articles from OseP) you can now see what the words look like in the old orthography. The programme otherwise transforms P to new orthography before it is shown on the screen.

 

 

[analysis] [found]

 

If you give a word through [analysis] (or Alt F3), the programme will attempt an analysis. A new result window is created, and the programme will also show how the given word is divided in (Greenlandic) syllables. Try "qajaavoq" again:

 

qajaavoq, qa=jaa=voq (2 4 3)

 søgte i (dobbeltklik) E looked in (double click) : K171 O216 s140 e98 P40 B76 d68 g294

  OseP: (i84;266 1)  [qajaa 2 10.] {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau- +} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak *

  OseP(2): (i84;267 2)  [qajaa 2 10.] * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

 

  Mere/More (dobbeltklik / double click):  K r P g 0 5 12

 

The second syllable has the 'weight' 2+2=4 because the vowel is long (aa). The third syllable has the 'weight' 2+1=3 because it ends in a consonant (q). The word is pronounced with most stress on the heavier second syllable. When the syllables of a word have equal 'weight', there is most stress on the first, third and fifth etc. syllables from the end.

 

Last comes a line with letters and numbers. You may double click or select through [found].

 

Selection of a letter will show what the programme has found in the dictionary in question. If you give the letter with a sign "-" (e.g. through [analysis]), the articles are shown just as they are in the dictionary. The programme will show the first up to 40 occurencies of the given word under each letter; you may write another maximum number between 1 and 200 before the given word, e.g. "100 kayak".

 

Selection of "P" gives:

 

P : tekstord i Ordbogeeraq E word in the text of (Ose)P  (dobbeltklik tal efter ';' viser hele artiklen E double click on number after ';' shows the full article)

  OseP: (i84;201 12)  [qa Naq4 qajaq] -#qaannakkut =pivoq: =qajaavoq

 

  Mere/More (dobbeltklik / double click):  K r O g 0 5 12

 

Selection of "0" (the digit) gives:

 

0 : enkleste analyse(r) E simplest analysis/analyses

   Analyse / Analysis :  qajaa/voq/  =  qajaa2.Poq1.€0  (indi,3e)

  <qajaa2  verbalstamme E verbal stem>  OseP: (i84;266)  {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau- +} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

  <.Poq1  indikativ (fremsættemåde) E indicative>

  <.€0  3. person ental E 3rd person singular>

 

  Mere/More (dobbeltklik / double click):  K r O P g 5 12

 

"qajaavoq" is probably the verbal stem qajaa2 with inflexion for indicative, 3rd person singular. "5" gives a more complex analysis:

 

5

   Analyse / Analysis :  qaja/a/voq/  =  qajaq4.u2.Poq1.€0  (indi,3e) [-u-]

  <qajaq4  navnestamme E noun stem>  OseP: (i84;201)  {PE 319:5 qayaR +} >qajaq . kajak S (med mand i) E kayak (with a man in it) | >qaannat . kajakker, kajakmænd | >qaannat =marluk =aggerput: S der kommer to kajakmænd roende E there are two kayak men who come paddling | -#qaannap -#qaannamut -#qaannanut | >qajara =iluarsarallarlara: S lad mig først ordne min kajak! E let me first arrange my kayak | -#qaannama -#qajaaqajarpoq | -§qajakasigaqajakua | #qajapilorujussuaq #qajarsiaq | #qajarsiaaqajarsissagaluarama #qajassaa * >qajaq, t aannqajartaarpoq, #qajarsiorpoq, &qajassiaq  | >qaannat, tq | -#qaannakkut =pivoq: =qajaavoq

  <.u2  føjes til navnestamme, danner verbalstamme E is added to a noun stem, forms a verbal stem>  'er ..' .uvoq

  <.Poq1  indikativ (fremsættemåde) E indicative>

  <.€0  3. person ental E 3rd person singular>

 

  Mere/More (dobbeltklik / double click):  K r O P g 0 12

 

The stem qajaa2 'perish in a kayak' may be qajaq4 expanded with .u2 'be (a) ..'. Or "qajaavoq" may be "qajaq" with the affix ".uvoq", as it is usually put. You may enter them all by double clicking. "qajaavoq" doesn't mean 'he is a kayak', however; but the kayaker is one with his vessel, and even more so when he hangs dead in it. Later, only the kayak is found.

 

With "12" you get a still more complex analysis.

 

Double click on a word with a sign "€"/"#"/"-#"/"§"/"-§"/"&"/"%"/"-%" will show what another article or dictionary says about the word. Try it, and see an explanation in [Guide]The dictionaries.

 

You may also give e.g. "qajaangajappoq" in through [analysis]:

 

 qajaangajappoq, qa=jaa=nga=jap=poq (2 4 2 3 3)

 søgte i (dobbeltklik) E looked in (double click) : K171 O216 s140 e98 P40 B76 d68 g294

  OseP: (i84;266 2)  [qajaa 2 10.] * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

 

  Mere/More (dobbeltklik / double click):  0 1 5 6 8 12

 

0 : enkleste analyse(r) E simplest analysis/analyses

   Analyse / Analysis :  qajaa/ngajap/poq/  =  qajaa2.ngajak2.Poq1.€0  (indi,3e)

  <qajaa2  verbalstamme E verbal stem>  OseP: (i84;265)  {qajaq; PI 319:8 qayau- +} >qajaavoq . er omkommet i kajak E has perished in a kayak * >qajaavoq: =qaannakkut =ajunaarpoq; _qajaasoqarajoqaaq, _qajaangajappoq

  <.ngajak2  udvider verbalstamme E expands a verbal stem>  '.. næsten/omtrent' .ngajappoq

  <.Poq1  indikativ (fremsættemåde) E indicative>

  <.€0  3. person ental E 3rd person singular>

 

  Mere/More (dobbeltklik / double click):  O 1 5 6 8 12

 

(The last line contains the letter "O", not the digit "0".) A double click on ".ngajappoq" will give:

 

 søgte i (dobbeltklik) E looked in (double click) : K8 f2 O4 B1

  Kr: (r87;19 1)  §.ngajak, N. frit; og _.ngajappoq, V. ntr. frit: næsten; så halvt. |

  <føjes til verbalstamme E is added to a verbal stem>  OseP: (i149;148 1)  [.ngaja k2] (2) {[PE 474:5 .tyag]} >.ngajappoq A .. næsten/omtrent E .. almost |

 

"qajaangajappoq" probably means "he almost perished in a kayak".

 

 

[right part]

 

The affix .uvoq occurs with the form "avoq" in "qajaavoq". If you cannot remember the standard form, you may give "avoq" via [right part] and obtain:

 

 søgte i (dobbeltklik) E looked in (double click) : O7

  <føjes til verbalstamme E is added to a verbal stem>  OseP: (i137,15)  [/a i2 3:10..(T)i] (2) {-a/}  /avoq : .(T)ivoq '.. (nogen/noget)'

  <føjes til verbalstamme E is added to a verbal stem>  OseP(2): (i146,156)  [/a 2 10..ja] (2) {-i/}  /avoq : .javoq 'er tilbøjelig til at .., .. let'

  <føjes til ord eller navnestamme E is added to a word or a noun stem>  OseP(3): (i156,176)  [/a 2 10..u] (0/4) {-a/}  /avoq : .uvoq 'er ..'

 

The third entry says that "avoq" after a (: {-a/}) may be .uvoq. The first suggests the "semi-transitive" (or Object-suppressing) affix .(T)ivoq instead. It is added to a transitive verbal stem. (The still more complex analysis obtained with "12" in fact involves .(T)ivoq.)

 

"10." means intransitive, i.e. without Object. "3:" indicates a 'weight' 3 instead of the default 2 per morpheme. Analyses with a smaller sum of these 'weight's are preferred.

 

You obtain explanation to most other terms and signs if you give them in through [input]. The class digits (0/2/4) must be given in parentheses: "(0)" etc. A list can be found in [Grammar]Class digits and inflexions.

 

[Guide]The dictionaries gives more details.

 

 

[reverse]

 

If you give a word through [reverse], it will be reverted and searched in a reverse list of the entry words in OseP and Bdg:

 

qajaavoq, baglæns (/ reverse): qovaajaq

 søgte i (dobbeltklik) E looked in (double click) : a137

 

A double click on "a137" will now show "qajaavoq" and other words which resemble it on the right.

 

 

[full analysis]

 

If you give a word through [full analysis], the programme will also look for Danish word parts. See [Guide]Incomplete analysis.

 

If the programme (still) cannot recognize all parts of the given word, it will add a "0" before the numbers (for analyses) with a single digit: 00, 01 and so on. Numbers greater than 9 (i.e. 09) are not shown in this case.

 

This push-button adds "--" before the given word. With a number for already found analyses you obtain relation and Role diagrams for those analyses, see [Grammar]Diagrams.